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lung x ray.jpgLung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths, but new advances in prevention, lung cancer screening and research are helping to save more lives. And, here at MD Anderson, we're leading the fight against lung cancer by focusing on prevention, lung cancer screening and personalized lung cancer treatment through our Moon Shots Program, an ambitious program to reduce cancer deaths for several cancers and ultimately find cures for these and other cancers.

We spoke with Ara Vaporciyan, M.D., and Mara Antonoff, M.D., to find out what you need to know about lung cancer. Here's what they had to say about lung cancer screening and early detection, as well as the latest in lung cancer treatment and research.

Who else is more likely to develop lung cancer?
Cigarette smoking is estimated to directly cause about 85% of all lung cancers. Smoking cigars or pipes, as well as secondhand smoke exposure, also put you at increased risk of developing lung cancer. 

So does exposure to certain environmental carcinogens, such as asbestos, radon, arsenic, tar, chromium and nickel.

Lung cancer also can run in families, but we have yet to identify exactly the genetic basis for this.

Lung cancer is also becoming more common in women.

IACS_Lab_Shots_492_master.jpgBy Lori Baker

MD Anderson has close to 2,000 doctors. Several hundred never treat patients, yet they are crucial to our mission.

"Our mission is to end cancer, not just provide excellent care," says Helen Piwnica-Worms, Ph.D., vice provost of Science. "We don't yet know enough, so our faculty must include a robust community of researchers who apply their scientific expertise to answer important biological questions."

According to Piwnica-Worms, delivering on our commitment to finding answers sets us apart.
"Discovery is what distinguishes breakthrough institutions," Piwnica- Worms says.

Birthplace of new cancer treatments
Basic research, also referred to as laboratory research and discovery science, is a part of MD Anderson's DNA. Ending cancer requires investments in this type of research, as well as clinical, translational and population sciences research. Many of today's treatments exist because of yesterday's basic research. For example, many patients with advanced pancreatic cancer rely on the drug gemcitabine, which is available to them thanks in large part to basic research conducted by William Plunkett, Ph.D., professor in Experimental Therapeutics.

Plunkett's discoveries of the metabolism, mechanism of action and clinical pharmacology of the drug led to the rationale for fixed-dose-rate infusion. His work complemented trials conducted by our clinical doctors.

As a result, in 1996, gemcitabine was the first drug for pancreatic cancer approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

clinicaltrialhunt.jpgBy Lori Baker

Bringing patients new and better cancer treatments through clinical trials is what sets MD Anderson apart. It's more than a goal or a point of pride. It's a passion. And we offer more cancer trials than anyplace else. 

Clinical trials are the key to developing new cancer treatment options. Advances only reach patients by going through clinical trials, which are the final step in a long process to find better ways to prevent, diagnose and treat cancer.

"People's health is at stake," says Hagop Kantarjian, M.D., chair of Leukemia. "So trials are conducted only after the procedure or medication has passed many steps that provide confidence it's better than what's available as standard of care. Trials are meticulously designed, reviewed and monitored. Their importance and complexity require expertise and supporting infrastructure, and MD Anderson has no equal in these areas."

Saving lives through clinical trials
Kantarjian personally has conducted 345 clinical trials in his 34 years at MD Anderson. He says he's motivated and inspired by the people he works with, as well as our patients.

"MD Anderson is the best place in the world because of everyone's incredible will to do good by making a difference for so many patients," Kantarjian says.

Jared_Burks_623.jpgBy Jenny Montgomery

After a long day of helping MD Anderson's researchers pursue a cure for cancer, Jared Burks, Ph.D., relaxes by custom crafting his own LEGO minifigures.

For Burks, the biggest problem with LEGOs is the limited selection of minifigures. Where's the Dr. Who collection? How about some zombie-fighting "Walking Dead" characters?

Burks' solution is to custom-craft his own minifigures. In fact, he's created thousands of them.

Life outside the leukemia research lab
An assistant professor in Leukemia and co-director of the Flow Cytometry and Cellular Imaging Core facility, Burks oversees expensive equipment shared by researchers around MD Anderson. These machines allow researchers to see, sort and analyze thousands or even millions of a person's cells very quickly.

But at the end of the day, Burks' idea of relaxing is focusing on something bigger than a cell. Like a light saber the size of a toothpick. Or a pair of goggles smaller than a thumb tack.

Kamat_Cysto_184_small.jpgby Jacqueline Mason

If you've been in the dark about advances in cancer surgery, look no further than the emerging field of minimally invasive operations aided by fluorescence.

New technologies make it possible to highlight and eradicate more cancer cells in real time using fluorescent dyes and endoscopic instruments with filtered light. Patients hardly can tell the difference from traditional surgery, especially when they're spared future recurrence from otherwise hidden cancer cells.

While fluorescence isn't appropriate for every case, surgeons in Urology and Gynecologic Oncology are especially excited about two new uses.

New hope for bladder cancer patients
H. Barton Grossman, M.D., clinical professor in Urology, helped prove the effectiveness of fluorescence cystoscopy as principal investigator of a large, randomized study of bladder cancer patients in 2007.

SaraStorm11414.jpg

By Jenny Montgomery


When Sara Souto Strom was growing up in Argentina, she wanted to be a mathematician. But she became a marine biologist instead. Then a cancer researcher.


That's what can happen when nothing much daunts you, not even pursuing a Ph.D. or two.

Now an associate professor in Epidemiology, she's followed a career path that looks a lot like an expedition.


Call of the wild

Strom recalls having a scientific, inquiring mind even as a child in Buenos Aires. Whether exploring the patterns of numbers or nature, Strom was drawn to discovery. When her twin sister was getting interested in boys, Strom was getting serious about zoology.

It wasn't merely the dispassionate interest of a scientist.


"I still like any animal that moves," she says. "Jellyfish, lizards, horses. Human beings, too. They all need help."


Eventually Strom set her sights on marine biology, and she spent seven years earning bachelor's, master's and doctorate degrees from the University of Buenos Aires.


Her research as a marine biologist led her to the discovery of a new species of one-celled protozoa -- and to her future husband. She was studying plankton on a research vessel off the coast of Antarctica when she met Gary Strom. He was the American-born first mate.

quit_smoking_how_to_curb_the_urge.JPGThis Saturday, Jan. 11, 2014, marks the 50th anniversary of the Surgeon General's 1964 Report on Smoking and Health, the first major statement in the United States linking smoking to lung cancer.

With more than 200,000 people diagnosed with lung cancer each year in the United States and smoking contributing to 87% of lung cancer deaths and 30% of all cancer deaths, this landmark report and the 30 subsequent Surgeon General's Reports on smoking have greatly influenced what we do here at MD Anderson.

Here are four ways the Surgeon General's Report has impacted our work and -- and our cancer patients and their families.

1.    We've hired more researchers focused on smoking and cancer.
"The 1964 Surgeon General's Report set the stage for extraordinary increase in knowledge and research on tobacco and cancer that's occurred since then," says Ellen R. Gritz, Ph.D., chair of Behavioral Science at MD Anderson and an author and/or editor for nine Surgeon General's reports on smoking and tobacco.

In 2013, we shot videos covering everything from groundbreaking research to wisdom from our patients and caregivers to MD Anderson's hidden gems and major milestones. We even recorded our first music video.

Here are our five most-watched videos from the past year.

"Hold On" -- a message of hope for cancer patients
One of our doctors, Greg Lizee, Ph.D., has written and recorded a song of hope called "Hold On." We've dedicated the song to all those touched by cancer.

Watch Dr. Lizee's "Hold On" music video:



Moon Shots Program 1-year milestones
When we launched our Moon Shots Program in Sept. 2012, we vowed to significantly reduce cancer deaths for several cancers and ultimately find cures for these and other cancers. Learn about the progress we've already and what's ahead for our efforts to end cancer.

Watch the Moon Shots Program 1-year milestones video:

DiNardo.jpgAt MD Anderson, we're constantly looking for innovative new ways to provide the best possible cancer treatment options for our patients as we work toward our mission of Making Cancer History®. To help with this, we've enlisted a cognitive computing system powered by IBM Watson.

This technology, known as Oncology Expert Advisor™ (OEA), will soon be used by our doctors and researchers as part of our Moon Shots Program, starting with our fight against leukemia. Ultimately, we hope to use the OEA in all of our clinics to help our patients regardless of their cancer type.

By pulling together and analyzing vast amounts of information from patient and research databases, the OEA is expected to help our care teams identify and fine-tune the best possible cancer treatments for our patients, while also alerting them to problems that arise during a patient's care. The OEA is also expected to help our researchers advance new discoveries in our fight against cancer.

We recently spoke with Courtney DiNardo, M.D., assistant professor in Leukemia, who's been testing the OEA before it debuts in our leukemia clinic. Here's what she had to say.

What are the benefits of using the OEA to organize and collect data about our patients?
The OEA can extract patient information from various data sources and synthesize all available medical records into a clear, concise and accurate synopsis. It can analyze clinical information, medical history, as well as leukemia-related information, such as specific genetic and molecular features, and look at all available information in the context of published evidence-based guidelines and available clinical trials.

Michael Keating, M.jpgby Michael Keating, M.D.

Last year, on Sept. 21, 2012, MD Anderson took another step toward fulfilling our mission of Making Cancer History when we officially launched our Moon Shots Program.

 

This ambitious and innovative program seeks to significantly reduce the mortality rates for several cancers -- including melanomatriple-negative breast, high-grade serous ovarian, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), lung and prostate -- and ultimately find cures for these and other cancers.

 

Over the last year, the Moon Shots Program provided a tremendous boost to cancer research. My colleagues at MD Anderson and I have spent the last 12 months collaborating to make significant advancements for our patients as well as those patients not yet diagnosed.

 

Meaningful progress made in the first year

The Moon Shots Program became a reality after MD Anderson's president Ronald DePinho, M.D., issued a formidable challenge to our doctors and researchers: to develop a comprehensive action plan to significantly increase survival rates of cancer patients in the near-term and accelerate cures in the long-term.

sherman.jpg

Thyroid cancer is the number one fastest rising cancer in women. Although it accounts for about 1% of all cancers, it is becoming much more common. At least 450,000 people in the United States have completed treatment or are living with thyroid cancer. 

 

We recently spoke with Steven Sherman, M.D., chair of Endocrine Neoplasia and Hormonal Disorders, about the rise in thyroid cancer cases, thyroid cancer symptomsthyroid cancer diagnosis and thyroid cancer treatment. Here's what he had to say.

 

About 75% of people diagnosed with thyroid cancer are women. Why are women more likely than men to develop this disease?

Doctors aren't sure why more women develop thyroid cancer. All thyroid diseases are more common in women than men.

 

But when it comes to thyroid cancer, the difference of occurrences in gender disappears for children who have not entered puberty and older adults. So, thyroid cancer may be related to female hormones.

JessicaBowserandLindaRyan.jpg

By Linda Ryan

 

Recently, I had the honor of participating in a tour of MD Anderson's campus and research facilities. I learned about the many services available to patients.

 

I now know that I did not fully utilize the services that were available to me when I was a cervical cancer patient. The likely reason for that is simply geography. I flew to MD Anderson for my chemo treatments and then home.

 

If I lived closer, I would have participated in more of the programs that I learned about, such as services offered by the Integrative Medicine Center, which range from nutrition lectures to Pilates and yoga. The patient services are endless. They also offer quiet rooms where you or your caregiver can sleep, as well as a library where patients can research their specific diagnoses. The goal seems to genuinely be to help the patient navigate cancer with many tools in their arsenal.   

 

Learning about cancer prevention at MD Anderson

I recently read about the Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Science in the most recent issue of MD Anderson's Conquest magazine.

 

So, I was happy that our tour took us to the Cancer Prevention Center, which includes the Behavioral Research and Treatment Center. They are studying how certain behaviors have an impact on cancer prevention and recurrence. I am most interested in the research they are doing regarding exercise and its impact on cancer.

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